All Missions to Mars

Mission Country

Date

Type of Mission Notes
Mars 1 USSR 1962 Flyby FAILURE: lost contact before flyby
Mariner 3 USA 1964 Flyby FAILURE: shroud separation
Zond 2 USSR 1964 Flyby / Lander FAILURE: lost contact in flight
Mariner 4 USA 1964 Flyby SUCCESS: returned 22 images
Mars 1969A USSR 1969 Flyby FAILURE: Launch
Mars 1969B USSR 1969 Flyby FAILURE: Launch
Mariner 6 USA 1969 Flyby SUCCESS: returned 75 images
Mariner 7 USA 1969 Flyby SUCCESS: returned 126 images
Mariner 8 USA 1971 Orbiter FAILURE: Launch
Mariner 9 USA 1971 Orbiter SUCCESS: returned 7,329 images
Mars 2 USSR 1971 Orbiter / Lander FAILURE: Parachuted into dust storm
Mars 3 USSR 1971 Orbiter / Lander FAILURE: Parachuted into dust storm
Mars 5 USSR 1973 Orbiter FAILURE: Loss of pressure in Mars orbit
Mars 6 USSR 1973 Lander FAILURE: Landing failure
Viking 1 USA 1975 Orbiter / Lander SUCCESS: 1st lander on Mars
Viking 2 USA 1975 Orbiter / Lander SUCCESS: 2nd lander on Mars
Phobos 1 USSR 1988 Orbiter / Lander FAILURE: Mars orbit insertion failure
Phobos 2 USSR 1988 Orbiter / Lander FAILURE: reached Mars orbit, lost contact
Mars Observer USA 1990 Orbiter FAILURE: Fuel line rupture on Mars insertion
Mars '96 Russia 1996 Orbiter / Landers /
Penetrators / Rovers
FAILURE: Launch, crashed into the Pacific
Mars Pathfinder USA 1996 Lander / Rover SUCCESS: 1st rover on Mars
Mars Global Surveyor USA 1996 Orbiter SUCCESS: mapped Mars, ongoing mission
Nozomi Japan 1998 Orbiter FAILURE: Excessive propulsion use
Mars Climate Orbiter USA 1999 Orbiter FAILURE: Engineering units error
Mars Polar Lander USA 1999 Lander / Penetrator FAILURE: Mars landing error
Mars Odyssey USA 2001 Orbiter SUCCESS: ongoing mission
Mars Express ESA 2003 Orbiter SUCCESS: ongoing mission
Beagle 2 ESA 2003 Lander FAILURE: No Signal on Landing
MER-A Spirit USA 2003 Rover SUCCESS: ongoing mission
MER-B Opportunity USA 2003 Rover SUCCESS: ongoing mission
Reconnaissance Orbiter USA 2005 Orbiter Planned future mission
Phoenix Scout Mission USA 2007 Lander Planned future mission
Netlanders France 2007 4 Rovers Planned future mission
Phobos Sample Return Russia 2007 Sample Return Planned future mission
Mars Science Laboratory USA 2009 Lander Planned future mission
Mars Sample Return USA 2011? Sample Return Planned future mission
US Manned Mission USA 2015? Manned No U.S. Plan of Record

Notes:

  • Numerous undocumented/secret attempts were made to go to Mars by the Soviet Union in the 1960-1969 timeframe. None were successful.
  • Some missions marked as Failure on this table (such as Mars 5 and Phobos 2) could be considered partial successes as they returned data and images.
  • All planned future missions may be changed or cancelled - we will update this table when necessary


Related Links:

NSSDC Spacecraft Query
Type "mars" into this form for more background info on these missions.